Study in primary aged Nigerian students shows similar prevalence in ADHD as children in Ghana
What was the context of the study?
Attention Defecit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common nuerological disorders among children. The NIH in the Unite States estimates that 3%-5% of children are affeted by ADHD. ADHD leaves children vulnerable to low academic performance, physical injuries, difficulties with forming relationships, and low self esteem. Once a child is diagnosed with ADHD preventative meaurses can be implemented to reduce the negative impacts on the child's academics, reltionships, and well-being. However, prevalence and signs vary significantly so it is important to conduct research in order to identify the epidemiology of ADHD. Ambuabunos et al., conducted research to identify the prevalence of ADHD in primary aged school children in Nigeria.
What were the methods of the study?
The study was conducted in Egor Local Government Area (LGA) of Edo State. 9 out of 31 public schools were selcted by random sampling and 250 children from each grade 1-6 was selcted to particpate. The total sample included 1,500 children aged from 6-12. Teachers and parents were interviewed and the children were diagnosed with ADHD using the Disruptive Behavior Disorder questionnaire. The socieoecomonic status of the children was noted when the parents of the children were interviewed.
What did the study find?
Overall, the study found an overall prevalence of 7.6%. ADHD was more common in males (9.4%) than females (5.5%). The researchers divided the prevalnce into the different subgroups. For attention defecit disorder (ADD) the prevalence among the children diagnosed with ADHD was 47.3%. Second, the hyperactivity disorder (HD) subgroup affetted 21.4% of the children diagnosed with ADHD, and the combined subtype was present in 31.3% of the children diagnosed with ADHD. Additionally, children aged 9 years old had the highest proportion of ADHD.
What were the conclusions of the study?
ADHD is prevalent among primary aged school children in Nigeria. These results are similar to the study conducted by Afefi and Nyarko that found a prevlance of 12.8% in primary aged school children in Ghana (2017). Therefore, it is important to note that ADHD has an impact on children in Africa and in order to create a conducive environment for these children educators and caregivers must be educated on the managment of ADHD. Conducting more research and spreading awareness to the public about the impacts of ADHD on primary aged school children is crucial to helping the children develop properly.
Ambuabunos, E., Otouwe, E., Ibadin, M. (2011). Community survey of attention defecit/hyperactivity disorder among primary pupils in Benin City, Nigeria. Annals of African Medicine, 10(2), 91-96. doi:10.4103/1596-3519.82065.